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Physicians have used the manual medicine diagnosis and treatment techniques for thousands of years. The first information about manual medicine dates back to 3000 years ago. In Edwin-Smith-Papyrus (BC 2500-3000) notes, techniques that are similar to manual diagnostic techniques used in neck pain are mentioned. Edwin Smith Papyrus are inscriptions that include 69 explanations, which include opinions and additional notes as well as original author descriptions that are made throughout several hundred years (Figure-1). These inscriptions also include 48 systematically arranged case reports, deriving from head trauma to other musculoskeletal disorders (thorax, backbone problems, etc.), each case presentation consists of title, examination notes, diagnosis and treatment, but some reports are unfortunately lost.
The Hammurabi law code (2250 BC) are the findings excavated on a series of black stones resembling books. From 282 rules, 8 cover the penalties for fixed medical treatment fees and malpractice laws related to physicians. In the example in Figure 2, it is said that if the physician fixes a broken bone or heals the sick bone anyhow, the patient should give the physician five silver shades.
Indian physicians, such as Susruta (1500 BC), who was believed to be the founder of Ayurvedic medicine, used manual techniques. While the history of spinal manipulation dates back to Hippocrates (375-460 BC) and Galen (130-200 BC) along with other ancient Greek physicians, it is difficult to follow the development of manual medicine until the Middle Ages. Physicians with historical personality such as Hippocrates, Galen and Apoloniy were interested in the pain of the spine, the treatment with pressure application and with other manual therapy techniques applied by the physician using arms and legs.
Hippocrates used the term “pararthrema” in his work and spoke about this term as small joint dislocations and their manual replacement. It is known, he once said to his students at his school in Kos: "In pararthrema, the vertebrae do not shift much, only a slight amount. If the physician uses his hands and eyes well, he can make the slipped spine right. If this old art is applied well, there will be no harm all".